Update: I should update this.
These are mostly just vague ideas of changes I would make if I were in charge of things. My preferred type of national government would be one that is decentralized and put in to the hands of local governments as much as possible, especially for a nation as large as Canada (that's thing #1), so some of these would be more relevant if I were in charge of provincial or municipal government, and not on a national level.
The big thing I would change with the taxation system is that I would get rid of personal income taxes. Instead, individuals would be taxed on their net worth. This would require some transparency from individuals and banks to track everything (or a good system of reporting to encourage people to not lie) but would lead to a more "fair" way of collecting funds. For the young professional with a large post-education debt, taxes wouldn't burden them further, helping them get out of debt more quickly. For the successful businessman, sitting on his assets, his net taxes might be somewhat higher, but they would be the type of person who doesn't mind that.
I'd like to change corporate taxes too, but I'm not sure what method to do that with.
I wouldn't set a minimum wage. By not setting a minimum wage, jobs that could easily be replaced by automated systems wouldn't be at the risk of being removed. With the recent spike demand for higher wages, we've pushed humans to the point where they are more expensive than robots for tasks like fast food ordering, and it could only get worse. My plan, or at least what I'd like to see tried, would be more about the employee and employer agreeing on a fair wage, and leaving the government out if it.
I would completely eliminate the postal service as a government job. For required physical mail, namely mail from out of the country, a private postal service could be contracted. There would be no super-cheap mass mailing options, so no junk mail. The cost of shipping would probably go up, and for good reasons, but that would be expected when one gets better service! (As a side note, I'd really want a better system of transferring money between bank accounts, maybe like the one used in England, to reduce reliance on cheques.)
I want a full-scale removal of dependence on fossil fuels for power. Not the cheating method of systems that need fossils fuel backups to handle load spikes and times when it's not sunny or windy, but a switch over to 100% (not including existing non-waste systems, like hydro) nuclear power.
Solar still could have a use, for entities that want to reduce their reliance on the grid, but giant solar farms run by municipalities would have no use. Ugly wind power could just go away completely.
The value of local currency should be tied to a precious metal, preferably gold. Under no circumstances should the currency be changed in to one that is shared with other nations, like the Euro. It would also be good if there were some safeguards put in place to prevent transition to a cashless, easily manipulated system.
I would like to see a full overhaul and analysis of our current traffic systems. Our roads are too boring, and seem to be designed with the safety of the driver in mind. I want some studies to be done about the concept of making roads intentionally dangerous to a point that keeps drivers on their toes.
I would also like to see what happens if speed limits are removed and maybe replaced with a more fluid recommended speed system. Police already have the ability to ticket when a driver is driving "too fast for road conditions", so that could just be expanded upon. This could also help eliminate the cash-grabbing method of photo radar, which could barely be called policing.